Mengapa lebih dari 600 ribu Sarjana menganggur?



[Jakarta, VoE of FKIP UKI] Laporan ini adalah bagian ketiga hasil wawancara Redaksi VoE dengan Bapak Parlindungan Pardede, Dekan FKIP UKI, yang dilakukan dalam rangka menyambut Peringatan Hari  Pendidikan Nasional, 2 Mei 2018. Bagian pertama wawancara pada 30 April 2018 itu, yang berfokus pada peran teknologi di dunia pendidikan di Abad-21, telah kami publikasikan dengan judul Teknologi akan Rampas Profesi Guru dan Dosen? Bagian kedua berfokus pada hakikat dan manfaat penggunaan teknologi dalam pembelajaran, yang dipublikasikan dengan judul Online Learning: Untuk Gagah-Gagahan, atau Karena Kebutuhan? Bagian ketiga ini membahas tentang fenomena banyaknya sarjana yang menganggur di Indonesia.

Redaksi VoE FKIP UKI (VoE): Menurut, edisi Senin, 26 Maret 2018,  Menristekdikti, Mohamad Nasir, mengungkapkan kekhawatirannya terhadap banyaknya sarjana yang menganggur. Dikatakan bahwa sekitar 8,8% dari total 7.000.000 pengangguran di Indonesia adalah sarjana. Menurut Bapak, mengapa sekitar 616.000 lulusan S-1 itu menganggur?

Sarjana nganggurParlindungan Pardede (PP): Jika ditanya mengapa begitu banyak sarjana…

Lihat pos aslinya 999 kata lagi


A Sample Passage and Questions
It’s tough to talk about long RPs and questions without a sample passage and questions to look at. So, here’s a sample passage about Galileo with the italicized introduction.
As you read the passage, note the little numbers to the left. Those numbers count off every five lines of the passage (the “5” means that you’re reading the fifth line of the passage, the “10” means you’re reading the tenth line, and so on). Questions that ask you to refer to a specific word or section of the passage will include the line numbers of that word or section.
1. Main Idea
Main idea questions test your understanding of the entire passage. They don’t include specific quotations from the passage. Instead, they ask broad questions that focus on the passage’s primary purpose. Unlike themes and arguments questions (question type 5), main idea questions do not concern the author’s opinions on the subject—they just focus on the subject or idea itself. Main idea questions cover things such as
  • What’s the primary purpose of the passage?
  • What main idea is the author trying to convey?
  • Why did the author write it?
A Sample Main Idea Question
Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
(A) Science always conflicts with religion.
(B) Science is vulnerable to outside social forces.
(C) Ideally, scientific theories should reinforce religious doctrine.
(D) Science operates in a vacuum.
(E) Advanced technology is the only route to good scientific theories.
The best way to deal with main idea questions is to come up with a one-sentence summary of the passage. For this passage, you might come up with something like “Galileo’s scientific discoveries in particular, and science in general, were affected by the religious and social forces of the time.” Once you have the summary, go to the answer choices. In our example question, the answer that best fits the summary is B.
But since the passage takes a long time to discuss Galileo’s run-ins with the Roman Catholic Church, you might have been tempted by A. If you’re a bit unsure, a good way to back up your summary is to look at the opening and concluding sentences of the passage, and, if necessary, at the topic sentence of each paragraph (the topic sentence is the first sentence in each paragraph). In the Galileo passage, sentences like the first sentence of this passage—“Galileo Galilei was born in 1564 into a Europe wracked by cultural ferment and religious divisions”—make it clear that the passage is about a scientist in the midst of cultural and religious upheaval. The passage’s descriptions of the struggle between the orthodoxy of the Church and the rising scientific revolution help establish the main idea of the passage: that science is vulnerable to outside social forces, B.
2. Attitude or Tone
These questions test whether you understand the author’s view on the subject. To answer them correctly, you should write down whether the author is for or against his or her subject as you read the passage. It might also be helpful to jot down a few of the points or examples the writer uses to make his or her argument.
The differences in the answer choices for this type of question can be slight. For example, you might have to choose between “irritated” and “enraged.” Both of these words suggest that the author has negative sentiments about the topic, but the difference lies in the intensity of those feelings. Detecting the words and phrases that convey the intensity of an author’s feelings will help you distinguish between different extremes of a similar overall feeling. Determining that a certain topic upsets the author is only the first step. You then need to examine the author’s word choice closely to pinpoint the degree of his or her feeling. Is the upset author mildly disturbed? Strongly disapproving? Or enraged? It might help to imagine how the author might sound if he or she read the passage aloud.
If you can’t come to a firm decision about the intensity of a feeling, remember that even if all you know is whether the author’s tone is positive, negative, or neutral, you’ll almost definitely be able to eliminate at least some answer choices and turn the guessing odds in your favor.
A Sample Attitude or Tone Question
The author’s tone in this passage can best be described as
(A) analytical
(B) disturbed
(C) skeptical
(D) dramatic
(E) reverent
It will help you to first decide whether the author’s tone is positive, neutral, or negative, and then look at the answers in order to cross off those that don’t fit. So, is the Galileo author positive, neutral, or negative? The passage describes an entire time period, covering the different sides, and while it discusses how the Counter-Reformation affected Galileo, it never condemns or praises either the reformation or Galileo. It seeks mainly to describe what happened. So, it’s a pretty neutral passage, which means you can eliminate B and C, since those answer choices are negative, andE, since reverent (“expressing devotion”) is extremely positive. That leaves dramaticand analytical.
The next step is to ask yourself how the passage would sound if its tone were dramatic: It would be full of highs and lows, exclamations and sudden shifts, and it may lurch all over the emotional spectrum. What about if it were analytical? It would be a little dry, very informational, with few highs and lows and lots of explanation meant to scrutinize all sides of the problem. Based on that description, analytical sounds like the most accurate way to sum up this writer’s tone in the passage. A is the correct answer.
3. Specific Information
These questions ask about information that’s explicitly stated in the passage. On long RPs, specific information questions usually pinpoint parts of the passage via line numbers or a direct quotation. Very often, specific information questions come in the form of NOT or EXCEPT formats in which you have to choose the one wrong answer out of the five answer choices.
A Sample Specific Information Question
Which of the following was not a reason for Martin Luther’s attack on the Catholic Church (lines 4–6)?
(A) pagan elements in its practices
(B) the amorality of its leadership
(C) its excessive attention to piety
(D) its corruption and worldliness
(E) the political involvement of the popes
There’s no reason to ever try to answer this question type without going back to the passage. Take a brief look at the specific lines that the question addresses (in this example, lines 4–6). It’s time well spent.
In this passage, lines 4–6 say that Luther attacked the Church for “having become too worldly and politically corrupt and for obscuring the fundamentals of Christianity with pagan elements.” That takes out A, B, D, and E. so the answer is C.
4. Implied Information
Information is “implied” when certain facts, statements, or ideas convey the information but don’t declare it outright. Think of these as “suggestion” questions. Implied information questions identify a particular part of the passage and ask you about less obvious information that’s “between the lines.” To find the correct answer, you may have to deduce what’s being said or take a leap of logic. Remember that the leaps the SAT requires you to take are never very vast. Even though implied information questions ask you to reach a bit beyond what the passage states explicitly, they do not require you to think far outside the boundaries of the facts and opinions that the passage overtly contains. Often, you can spot implied information questions when you see words like context, inferred, implied, indicated, or suggested. Here is a sample of how the SAT phrases implied information questions.
A Sample Implied Information Question
In the second paragraph, the passage implies that during the Renaissance, the Catholic Church
(A) saw little conflict between its own goals and those of the arts and sciences
(B) promoted the arts as a way to limit the social influence of scientists
(C) supported Martin Luther’s views on religion and the Church
(D) had limited interaction with the religious affairs of commoners
(E) focused on spirituality as opposed to worldly matters
For this kind of question, it’s important to come up with your own answer before looking at the answer choices. Outside of the context of the passage, any one of the answer choices might look acceptable to you. It can also be very helpful to think about the main idea of the passage to help you figure out the implied information. Since the author is trying to support a main idea, the information implied in that support will also be associated with the main idea.
This question asks about the Catholic Church during the Renaissance and identifies the second paragraph as the place to look. In that paragraph, it says that during the Renaissance, the Church “was a great patron of the arts and sciences.” What does this suggest about the Church during that period? How about this: “The Church liked the arts and sciences during the Renaissance.” Now go through the answer choices and look for a match: A is by far the best fit and the best answer.
5. Themes and Arguments
The main idea of a passage is its overall purpose. Themes are the recurring concepts that an author uses to establish the main idea. Arguments are the specific perspectives and opinions an author expresses on his or her main idea. Themes and arguments questions test your ability to look at particular parts of a passage and identify the underlying feelings they convey about the main idea. Themes and arguments questions often test your ability to put what the passage says, or how the author feels, into your own words.
The main idea of a passage might be that “the growing rat population is damaging Chicago.” Three different themes that an author uses to establish the main idea could be disease, tourism, and city infrastructure. The author’s arguments, or specific opinions, could be that the growing rat population has caused the spread of influenza in Chicago, has led to a steep drop in tourism to the city, and threatens to destroy some of the city’s most important structures.
A Sample Themes and Arguments Question
Which of the following best explains why the Catholic Church started the Counter-Reformation? (lines 8–10)
(A) to fight scientific heresy
(B) to clean out its own ranks
(C) to reinvigorate artists and intellectuals
(D) to elect a new pope
(E) to counter Protestant challenges
The first thing you should do on this type of question is go back to the passage and then come up with your own answer to the question. Once you have this answer in your head, then look at the answer choices. If you look at the answer choices before going back to the passage, you’re much more likely to make a careless error.
This question tests whether you can follow the flow of argument within the text. More specifically, it tests your ability to differentiate between the causes and effects of the Counter-Reformation. Answers A, B, and C refer to effects of the Counter-Reformation, not the causes. But if you were to only look at the answers, any one of these choices might look familiar and therefore tempt you. Avoid temptation. Go back to the passage: “In 1517, Martin Luther, a former monk, attacked Catholicism for having become too worldly and politically corrupt and for obscuring the fundamentals of Christianity with pagan elements. His reforming zeal . . . set in motion the Protestant Reformation and split European Christianity in two. In response, Roman Catholicism steeled itself for battle and launched the Counter-Reformation, which emphasized orthodoxy and fidelity to the true Church.” So, your answer to the question of why the Catholic Church started the Counter-Reformation would be something like, “In response to the Protestants and Martin Luther.” Answer choice Eis the best fit and the right answer.
6. Technique
Every author uses certain methods to convey his or her ideas. Technique questions require you to identify the specific literary tool or method the author of the passage uses in a specific part of the passage. This makes technique questions the most likely place for literary terms like simile and metaphor to appear.
Technique questions can focus on very small units in the passage, such as single words or simple parenthetical statements, or they can target larger units, such as a list, or even the relationship between entire paragraphs.
If you’re having trouble figuring out why or how an author is using a particular technique, it can often be helpful to take a step back and look at the technique in light of the author’s main point or idea. If you know the main idea, you can often use that information to figure out what an author is trying to accomplish in a particular area of a passage.
A Sample Technique Example
The author’s description of Galileo’s telescope as having “struck a fatal blow” is an example of a(n)
(A) simile
(B) metaphor
(C) personification
(D) allusion
(E) irony
This question tests your knowledge of literary terms—a new subject on the new SAT. (If you’re having trouble with literary terms, take some time to look over our literary terms list on page 158.) In this question, the telescope, an inanimate object, is described as having “struck a fatal blow.” In other words, it’s been given human qualities, which is the definition of personification.
7. Words in Context
These questions present a word or short phrase from the passage and then ask about the meaning of that word in the greater context of the passage. Such questions on long RPs include line numbers that direct you to where the words in the question appear in the passage.
The majority of words-in-context questions look like this:
The word “content” (line 34) is closest in meaning to which of the following words?
Words-in-context questions are a lot like sentence completions, only on these questions, the “blank” comes in the form of a word in quotes. You should try to ignore that word in quotes and imagine it as a blank. In other words, treat words-in-context questions as if they were Sentence Completions.
Why ignore those words in quotes? Because words-in-context questions often have answer choices with words that are indeed correct meanings of the tested word but not the correct meaning of the word as it appears in the passage. For example, the question above might contain answer choices such as satisfied and subject, both of which are correct meanings of the word content. But remember that these questions test the word in context. By approaching the sentence as if it were a sentence completion, you’ll be forced to consider the context of the word in quotes.
A Sample Words in Context Example
1. The term “ferment” in line 1 most closely means
(A) alienation
(B) turmoil
(C) consolidation
(D) decomposition
(E) stagnation



Skimming and Scanning

Skimming and Scanning

Skimming and Scanning are two key skills identified in the Programmes of Study for  Reading in the National Curriculum. The following exercise will help the children to practice these, will increase their exposure to different kinds of texts, and will increase their awareness of the different consonant blends.

1) Choose a page of text which can easily be photocopied onto a single A4 page. This can be from any kind of book, and if the activity is repeated, try to vary the kinds of texts that you use (e.g. stories, information books, pages from dictionaries). Make sure that each child has one copy. They should also have access to coloured pens and / or pencils.

2) Read through the text with the children to give them a general understanding of it..

3) The main part of the activity can be tried in two different ways:

  • Give the children a time limit (e.g. 5 minutes) and ask them to find as many occurrences of a certain consonant blend (e.g. “ch”) as possible. They should colour each “ch” on the page in a certain colour (e.g. red), whether the “ch” is found at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a word. At the end of the time, ask them to count the number of “ch”s they have found.
  • Before the lesson, count how many “ch”s there are on the page. Then, instead of getting the children to find as many of these as possible in a certain time, ask them to find them all (telling them how many there are on the page), colouring them in as above. The first person to find all of them wins.

4) Now, ask them to find a different blend (e.g. “st”), making sure that they colour these in using a different colour.

5) Repeat the activity using different texts, and finding different blends.

Another suggestion has been contributed by a visitor…

This is fun practice for identifying keywords. You need a class set of whatever non-fiction or fiction text is currently being studied. If the books are shared, partners must take turns or you risk torn pages!

The teacher chooses 2-3 words, each occurring only once on page. Write the word, then the page number on the board. The winner is first person to find the word and prove by reading the sentence containing that word. Then children can identify and write up their own keywords for others to find.


Questions to think about

Here are some questions to think about to help you develop effective reading strategies:

Your purpose for reading

  • What do we mean by purpose?
  • Why is it important to consider your purpose for reading a text?
  • How does your purpose determine the strategies you should use?

Getting started with reading

  • How should you approach a long subject reading list?
  • How does background knowledge affect your reading of a text?

Reading critically

  • What is meant by a critical approach to reading?
  • How do you take a critical approach to reading internet


Your learning goals

Depending on whether you have come straight from school or whether you have spent some time in the workforce, you will have different approaches to university study.

What is an independent learner?

An independent learner is someone who has found out enough about their subject requirements and their lecturers’ expectations so that they can plan their study effectively. It doesn’t mean you can’t ask for help, or that you are expected to know what to do the whole time. It does mean that you can draw on criteria for your decision-making, like how much reading you should do for a topic; what questions to ask; whether to spend another hour studying before bed.

Work, life, study balance

If you have not studied for a long time you may think you do not have the skills you need for advanced study, but you will probably find that your time management skills are a great asset.

Often the most pressing problem is having to juggle work, study and home commitments. Make sure those close to you understand what you’re doing and why. Let them know in advance your timelines and periods of greatest potential stress.

If you have already been managing home and work for some time, you can turn your time management skills to a new set of tasks.

  • Try making a list of things that have to be done to keep life running smoothly.
  • Then make another list of thing which could be done, but which are not really essential. They can be put aside till the end of semester, or even reallocated to other family members.
  • Do a backwards diary from your furthest deadline to the present time, so you can see how many days and hours you have available to allocate to study tasks.

Study goals

It is good to be clear about your purposes for study. Perhaps your aim is to achieve a more interesting career. For many students it is a question of meeting challenges, and of self-fulfilment



A speech sound that’s not a vowel; a letter of thealphabet that represents a speech sound produced by a partial or complete obstruction of the air stream by a constriction of the speech organs.

From the Latin, “agree” and “sound”

Examples and Observations:

    • “There are 21 consonant letters in the written alphabet (B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z), and there are 24 consonant sounds in most English accents. . . . Because of the erratic history of English spelling, there is no neat one-to-one correlation between letters and sounds.”
      (David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge University Press, 2003)
    • “The 24 usual consonants occur in the following words, at the beginning unless otherwise specified: pale, tale, kale, bale, dale, gale, chain, Jane, fail, thin, sale, shale, hale, vale, this, zoo; (in the middle of) measure, mail, nail; (at the end of)sing, lay, rail, wail, Yale. Not one of these consonants is spelled in a completely consistent way in English, and some of them are spelled very oddly and inconsistently indeed. Note that our alphabet has no single letters for spelling the consonants in chain, thin, shale, this, measure, and sing. Those letters that are commonly used for spelling consonants may be called consonant letters, but calling them consonants is loose and misleading.”
  • “Our B represents probably the same sound carried by the analogous letter in Near Eastern alphabets of 30 or 40 centuries ago.”It is a consonant sound. Therefore, B is a consonant letter, the first in alphabetical sequence of our 21. If asked at a dinner party to define the word ‘consonant,’ someone might venture, ‘Well, I know it’s not a vowel . . .’ and that actually is the best starting point. Whereas vowels are pronounced from the vocal cords with minimal shaping of expelled breath, consonant sounds are created through obstruction or channeling of the breath by the lips, teeth, tongue, throat, or nasal passage, variously combined. Some consonants, like B, involve the vocal cords; others don’t. Some, like R or W, flow the breath in a way that steers them relatively close to being vowels.”
  • The Lighter Side of Consonants
    Lost Consonants is a text and imageword play series which illustrates a sentence from which a vital letter has been removed, altering its meaning. Welcome to a world where children have leaning difficulties and youth can become addicted to rugs; where firemen wear fame-resistant clothing, and footballers get camp in their legs; where dogs start baking and horses start catering, and where, after several days



From the Latin, “to announce”

Examples and Observations:

    • Teaching Pronunciation
      “A study at the University of Leicester highlights the need for a new approach to the teaching of English pronunciationgiven that English is now a lingua franca, with more non-native speakers in the world than native speakers.”It suggests that the emphasis on ‘correct’ pronunciation of English as depicted in films like My Fair Lady and The King and Ishould be discontinued in favour [of]mutual intelligibility among non-native speakers, as well as celebrating the national identity of non-native speakers.

      “Therefore a Chinese or Indian speaker of English need not seek to ‘disguise’ his or her origins in seeking to speak English ‘properly’–instead they should feel free to speak with their dialects and accentsintact so long as what they said was clear and intelligible.”
      (“Study Calls For New Approach To Teaching English As A Lingua Franca.”ScienceDaily, July 20, 2009)

    • Spelling and Pronunciation
      “[T]he most common of all complaints to the BBC concerns the topic ofpronunciation. And sloppy speech is the charge most often cited. . . . In almost every case the words called sloppy are in fact perfectly normal pronunciations in everyday speech, and everyone uses them. They include such forms as Feb’ry forFebruary, lib’ry for library, Antar’tic for Antarctic, as’matic for asthmatic, twel’ths fortwelfths, patien’s for patients, reco’nize for recognize, and so on. It’s very difficult in fact to say some of these words in their ‘full’ form–try pronouncing the second t inpatients, for example. . . .”Most listeners give just one reason for their complaint: a letter is there in thespelling, and so it should be pronounced. This is another example of the widespread belief . . . that speech is a poor relation of writing. We always need to remind ourselves that speech came first . . . and that we all learn to speak before we learn to write. . . . We also need to remember that pronunciation patterns have changed radically since the days when the spelling system was laid down. English spelling hasn’t been a good guide to pronunciation for hundreds of years.”
      (David Crystal, The English Language. Penguin, 2002)

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    • The Endless Decline
      “[T]he regard formerly paid topronunciation has been gradually declining; so that now the greatest improprieties in that point are to be found among people of fashion; many pronunciations, which thirty or forty years ago were confined to the vulgar, are gradually gaining ground; and if something be not done to stop this growing evil, and fix a general standard at present, the English is likely to become a mere jargon, which every one may pronounce as he pleases.”
      (Thomas Sheridan, A General Dictionary of the English Language, 1780)
    • The English Alphabet
      “[P]laywright George Bernard Shaw . . . called for a new alphabet and neworthography to ‘prescribe an official pronunciation,’ and he left a little money in his will as a cash prize for someone who could come up with a new English alphabet. . . . Shaw was consumed by the idea that people, especially children, were wasting time learning a ‘foolish orthography based on the notion that the business of spelling is to represent the origin and history of a word instead of its sound and meaning.'”
      (David Wolman, Righting the Mother Tongue: From Olde English to Email, the Tangled Story of English Spelling. Harper, 2010)
    • Changes in Pronunciation
      “Old nursery rhymes can . . . give us nice clues about earlier pronunciations. Take Jack and Jill–‘Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water; Jack fell down and broke his crown and Jill came tumbling after.’ The words water and afterare awkward here and, as you might guess, it’s the word beginning with ‘w’ that’s the culprit. . . . [T]he vowel sound of water–[wahter]–shifted to [wawter]. So wateroriginally rhymed with [after]. It wasn’t a perfect fit, of course, because of the ‘f’ inafter. However, in nonstandard pronunciations, this ‘f’ was often left out. Dickens occasionally spelt after as arter. So it was probably more a case that ‘Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of [wahter]; Jack fell down and broke his crown and Jill came tumbling [ahter].’ Much better!”
      (Kate Burridge, Gift of the Gob: Morsels of English Language History. HarperCollins Australia, 2011)
    • Stress
      “There is a great deal of evidence that native speakers rely very much on the stress pattern of words when they are listening. In fact, experiments have demonstrated that often when a native speaker mishears a word, it is because the foreigner has put the stress in the wrong place, not because he or shemispronounced the sound of the word.”
      (Joanne Kenworthy, Teaching English Pronunciation. Longman, 1987)
  • Proper Names
    “In English probably more than in most languages, there is a laxity in respect to the pronunciation of proper names. The following pronunciations are a perennial wonder: Magdalen pronounced Maudlin, Beauchamp . . . Beecham, Cholmondeley . . . Chumley, Greenwich . . . Grinidge, Mainwaring . . . Mannering, Leominster . . . Lemster, Marjoribanks . . . Marchbanks, Weymiss . . . Weemz. No one would marvel if such names were the despair of lexicographers.”
    (Theodora Ursula Irvine, How to Pronounce the Names in Shakespeare, 1919)
  • Pronunciation Anxiety
    “I mentioned to a colleague that I had just recorded a radio segment about thepronunciation of the word niche. He exclaimed, ‘That word always gets me! I am never sure how to pronounce it.’ We commiserated over our shared angst when confronted with this word. Does ‘neesh’ sound too French and too pretentious? Does ‘nitch’ make us sound unsophisticated? . . .”My colleague then added, ‘And then there’s homage! I don’t know what to do with that one either . . .’ I agreed: there’s the issue of where the stress goes as well as whether to say the initial /h/. I added the word forte to the how-should-I-pronounce-that mix. . . .

    “The conversation left me thinking, though, about the valuable work that can get done if we’re willing to talk about the anxiety that can come with these pronunciation conundrums and open up the space for students and others to put on the table words they’re not sure how to say—with no worries that anyone is going to question their education or intelligence if there are words more familiar to the eye than to the ear. And if anyone is laughing, it is out of relief that someone else isn’t sure how to pronounce that word.”




Form : ( S+ to be + being + P.P (V3) )


  1. A: we are studying passive voice now

P: passive voice is being studied by us now

  1. A: the teacher is explaining a new topic

P: a new topic ios being explained by the teacher

  1. A: the students are doing the exercise at the moments

P: the exercise Is being done by the student at the moment

NOTE : KALO ADA ING -> PAKE RUMUS ( S+to be+being +V3)




  1. What Is the conditions for good paragraph?

Paragraph : a group of sentences organied around a topic, a main idea about the topic and details that support the main idea

Topic : the overall subject of paragraph
Main idea : a statement that tells autors point about the topic .

Details : the specific info about the main idea or support for the main idea.


Developmental psychology: one part of the overall sikologi
development: the whole process perubanhan of the potential of individuals who increasingly growing forward, is more on the mental or psychiatric
According Gunarsa: merukan development process something first global first, passive, yet detailed, differentiated, and occur integration hierarchy.
Growth: refers to the progress or growth fisilk body that drove up to the optimum point and then to the regression (the physical)
Psychology is one of the developments in the field of psychology, such as clinical psychology, social psychology
Perkemangan process is affected:
– ASPECT socioeconomic